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LED Lighting: All you need to know

The word LED stands for "Light Emitting Diode", which means that LED luminaires consist of a diode that produces light. Since their appearance, LED luminaires have evolved from what initially only produced red, green or yellow light with a fairly low intensity, to what today is capable of illuminating entire rooms with different colour temperatures and intensities.

 

LED lighting

The wide range of lighting possibilities offered by LED luminaires, together with their many benefits, has meant that traditional halogen bulbs have been completely phased out in favour of the LED era. 

 

Although it is a more environmentally friendly, longer-lasting and better quality solution, there are also other reasons why it has become a key tool in architecture and interior design.

 

Here we tell you everything you need to know about LED lighting, techniques, luminaires, trends, etc., so that you can make the most of it in your architecture or interior design project. Don't miss it!

 

Characteristics of LED lighting

LED luminaires have proved to be the most practical and efficient option when it comes to lighting, and this is due to several factors:

  • It provides a brighter and sharper light.
  • LED luminaires consume very little energy. In fact, while an 800 lumen halogen bulb consumes 1000 W, an 850 lumen LED light consumes only 10 W, so we would have a consumption of up to 90% lower for greater luminosity.
  • They have a lifespan of 20,000 to 100,000 hours.
  • They are vibration resistant because they have no filaments.
  • They heat up less.
  • No ultraviolet or infrared emissions.
  • They are more environmentally friendly than any other type of luminaire.

These characteristics make LED luminaires perfect for all kinds of spaces, from homes to restaurants, shops and hotels. In addition, the wide range of possibilities in terms of types of LED luminaires, their intensity and colour rendering make it possible to use them to achieve very different results and atmospheres.

Interior LED lighting
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Outdoor LED lighting
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How LED lights work

LEDs are electronic components that allow current to flow in one direction, but do not allow current to flow in the opposite direction. In addition to allowing current to flow in one direction only, they also emit light in the direction in which the current flows through the diodes.

 

When a DC voltage passes through the light-emitting semiconductor, electroluminescence or light is produced. There are different types of LEDs depending on the technology used to manufacture and assemble electronic circuits. 

 

Types of LEDs

There are different types of LEDs that are more suitable for different areas depending on the atmosphere that you want to create and the functionality of each room. In many cases, several types are even combined to serve at different times, to highlight certain areas or to achieve more original results than a general light.

 

LED DIP (Dual In Line Package)

They are not exactly the most luminous efficient, so they are mainly used as indicators in different electronic products and household appliances.

 

SMD LEDs (Surface Mounted Diode)

These types of LEDs make it possible to include 3 diodes on the same chip and achieve white light with the combination of the three primary colours, which is why their development was a great advance in technology.

 

COB LED (Chip on Board)

They have a high luminous efficiency, being able to exceed 120 lumens per watt. In addition, their design allows heat to be dissipated efficiently, making them the perfect type of LED for luminaires that need to remain lit for long periods of time.

 

Micro LED

As can be deduced from their name, these are microscopic types of LEDs that are often used in the design of flat screens.

 

Types of LED lighting

Let's move on to another type of classification. In this case, we look at the location of the space where the luminaire will be installed.

 

Indoor LED lighting

Indoor LED lighting is of vital importance in any interior design project and the two best pieces of advice we can give are :

  • Install luminaires only where they are needed.
  • Keep luminaires glare-free
  • Opt for colour temperatures between 2200 K and 3000 K.
  • Choose luminaires with a closed aperture to highlight specific points or elements.
  • Choose luminaires with open degrees of aperture to achieve a more uniform light.
  • The closer the colour rendering index is to 100, the more faithful the colour rendering will be.

Taking these data into account, it is possible to achieve very different interior spaces and even completely transform a place by combining different luminaires to convey a feeling of greater spaciousness or to create a cosy and peaceful atmosphere.

 

Otherwise, using one type of LED luminaire or another will depend largely on the space.  And even within the same room they can vary if you want to combine several types or if the room has areas where different activities will take place, such as a dining room and a lounge area with sofas and armchairs.

  • In homes, luminaires will vary depending on whether they are placed in the kitchen, living room, bedrooms, etc.
  • In hotels we can find relaxation areas where it is more convenient to use indirect lighting in combination with other types of lighting.
  • In restaurants, for example, it may be necessary to combine a general light with others that illuminate the tables and other different luminaires to create atmosphere or highlight architectural or design details.

In any case, the important thing is to use the right luminaires for each space, functionality and area, to distribute them in a way that is useful and not counterproductive, and to avoid glare.

Indoor LED surface-mounted luminaire
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Indoor LED recessed luminaire
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LED outdoor lighting

Outdoor areas such as gardens or terraces also need customised lighting, just like indoors. It is easy to create an atmosphere of relaxation and tranquillity by using LED outdoor luminaires, but it is important to avoid general flat lighting that tries to imitate natural daylight.

 

In these cases, it is only necessary to choose the right luminaires, with a Protection Index adapted to the type of space in which each luminaire is to be placed. This will ensure that the luminaires will last longer, taking into account that they will have the necessary protection to withstand the sun, rain, etc.

 

This type of lighting can vary greatly depending on the place where it is placed. Regardless of whether they are outdoor spaces, they can be transit areas, relaxation areas, working areas, etc. In transit areas it is possible to illuminate from the wall or from the ground to frame paths and illuminate stairs or facades.

 

For outdoor lighting with relaxation areas, on the other hand, it is advisable to avoid general lighting, so it is more appropriate to use mainly floor and table lamps or garlands. In work areas where activities are carried out for which a little more light is needed, such as barbecue areas, another type of outdoor lighting such as a cape or toni will be necessary.

 

Architectural LED lighting

Architectural LED lighting is an element that can go unnoticed in most occasions, however, a wrongly designed and organised lighting can create an uncomfortable space, where the visibility is not enough or the intensity is too much. This is why the first objective of LED lighting is to achieve comfort in any space.

 

But it is also a tool that can make any architect's work be perceived as genius if it is used correctly to highlight architectural details, specific areas or to create the exact right ambience for each room. 

Indoor LED suspension luminaire
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Indoor LED track spotlights

Types of LED luminaires

Let's now look at LED luminaires classified according to their shape. There are as many types and shapes as there are spaces to fit, so it's hard not to find the perfect luminaire for your project, whether it's indoors, outdoors or in any possible style.

 

LED surface mounted luminaire

Surface mounted luminaires are used when there is no ceiling space available for recessing. In this sense, they are usually more economical to install, as they do not require the manipulation of walls or ceilings. 

 

Like watertight luminaires, they are highly watertight, making them suitable for use both outdoors exposed to rain and in damp interiors such as bathrooms or changing rooms.

 

In addition, surface-mounted LED luminaires are easy to install, as they have a frame that houses the LED driver, so there is no need to make any openings in the surface. There are two types:

Commonly called wall lights, these are luminaires that are fixed to a wall or ceiling. Depending on the number of luminaires that are placed, they can be a decorative element or configure the general lighting. 

These are usually more decorative elements that accompany the general lighting. For example, they can be placed on bedside tables, in a living room or hallway. They are more mobile than wall or ceiling lights.

 

Track projector

Track projector are especially recommended for accent lighting in retail, catering and exhibition areas, as the different spotlights can be moved along the track to concentrate the light on one point or create several points. In this sense, they are a very versatile resource.

 

They consist of a series of luminaires distributed on a metal track mounted on the ceiling. In addition, the track can be more or less visible, depending on the desired style.

 

For example, it is common in restaurants for the tables to be distributed in one way and sometimes in another. If we have track spotlights, we can move the spotlights and adapt to any situation.

LED profiles and strips
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Outdoor LED surface mounted luminaire
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LED profiles and strips

LED strips are an efficient and flexible lighting system, collected by means of a ribbon that allows them to be manufactured in very small sizes and different measurements.

 

Its characteristics facilitate its installation in a multitude of spaces and adaptability to various shapes and surfaces, especially to illuminate any linear element, unlike what happens with luminaires with more specific light sources.

 

Currently, LED strips can be dimmed using almost any existing control protocol such as PWM, DMX, KNX, 0-10V, DALI, etc., as well as connectivity via various WIFI, Bluetooth or Alexa systems, and the incorporation of sensors.

 

Thanks to their use and the multiplicity of formats, nowadays it is possible to give light to corners and places that otherwise could not be illuminated. LED strips are used when you want to hide the lighting, both as general and indirect lighting and for accent lighting and signage.

 

LED linear luminaire

LED linear luminaires can be either recessed or suspended, and are one of the most practical ways to light large spaces. In fact, their versatility makes them one of the most popular options in places such as offices.

 

These luminaires can have different lighting characteristics, intensity and even colour temperature, so that by combining them it is possible to achieve an infinite number of different designs adapted to all kinds of requirements.

 

Why is it a favourite? They are very versatile pieces that adapt to very diverse spaces and also offer a continuous, homogeneous and comfortable light, avoiding annoying glare or shadows. There are two types:

 

Recessed linear luminaire

This is the linear luminaire that is embedded in walls and ceilings.

 

Surface mounted linear luminaire

Normally, the surface mounted linear luminaire is one that is suspended or attached to the ceiling.

 

Light fixtures

Wall surface luminaires, better known as wall lights, are placed on walls and are used both for lighting and as a decorative element.

 

This type of luminaire is widely used in homes, terraces and gardens. 

 

Recessed luminaire

A recessed luminaire is any luminaire that can be recessed in the floor, wall or ceiling, and is used to create indirect light as well as accent light, such as recessed spotlights. 

 

These are often used as focused light to highlight specific areas or elements such as pictures or shelves due to their angle of aperture. With this type of luminaire it is important to consider factors such as design and angle of light. 

 

Recessed outdoor floor lighting

This type of outdoor lighting is commonly used to illuminate walkways, garden paths or to achieve a soft light that illuminates the entire outdoor space. 

 

There is one type of luminaire, the recessed downlight, which is ideal for accentuating textured surfaces and adds a third dimension to facades.

LED linear systems
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Recessed outdoor LED luminaire
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LED design pendant lamps

LED pendant lamps are a key element in the final result of an interior design project. They are devices that hang from the ceiling, where height is a relevant factor to take into account.  

 

It is not only necessary to fulfil the function of lighting in the right way, but also to have a design that brings quality to the space in which it is and that is consistent with the overall style of the place. 

 

In this sense, having designer lamps such as those designed by Nahtrang, Nutcreatives, Andreu Carulla or Isaac Piñeiro for FARO Barcelona can give the space you are creating a personal, elegant and stylish touch that will undoubtedly bring great originality and added value to your interior design.

 

Ceiling fan with light 

Ceiling fans are not only a great option to ventilate, renew the air and refresh any space, but there is also the possibility of using fans with built-in LED light to fulfil several functions with a single device, illuminating, refreshing and ventilating at the same time. This is a very practical option for homes, where a single LED light incorporated in the ceiling fan would be enough to illuminate a room completely.

Outdoor LED design pendant lamps
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Fans with LED light
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LED colour temperature

LED colour temperature is a value that is measured in degrees Kelvin (K) and determines what we consider to be warm light tones and cool light tones. When a black body is heated, it radiates a different type of light depending on the temperature, creating that warm or cool light that we understand as colour temperature in LED luminaires.

 

We can distinguish 3 types of colour temperature: cold, neutral and warm, and each of them is used for specific spaces.

  • Cold light: more than 4000k
  • Neutral light: between 2700 and 4000K
  • Warm light: 2700K or less

LED lamps can be manufactured with a specific colour temperature or incorporate a dimmer to control the desired temperature at any given moment.

 

In addition, unlike other types of lighting such as fluorescent tubes, LED lighting does not alter or damage the objects it illuminates as it does not emit ultraviolet or infrared radiation.

 

LED light intensity

Light intensity plays a crucial role in almost every day-to-day activity. Seeing clearly and distinguishing objects is important in activities that require more precision, however, in other spaces for different purposes, the intensity of light needed can change a lot. While this is to some extent subject to individual preference, the intensity of light will never be the same in spaces such as an office or living room. Although light intensity can be measured in different ways, the most common measurement is in lumens and lux.

  • Lumens measure the luminous flux of a luminaire, i.e. the intensity of the light emitted.
  • Luxes, however, relate the intensity of light to the square metres to be illuminated.

Factors such as the opening angle, colour temperature or distance to the light source can greatly influence the lumens.

 

How to position and install LED luminaires

Installing an LED luminaire can depend on many factors. First of all, the type of luminaire, the surface on which it is installed, the light points, etc. Each type of luminaire can be easier or more difficult to install depending on whether it is a recessed luminaire, pendant luminaire...

 

However, it will also be necessary to take into account the points where the luminaires are going to be placed from the very first moment the lighting project is designed. The placement of LED luminaires cannot be something random, but rather a project studied in detail that takes into account the type of light needed in each area, the activities that are going to be carried out in each space, the atmosphere that is intended to be created and how each type of light and its arrangement will affect the final result.

 

At Faro Barcelona, we have almost 40 years of experience working on lighting projects. We are experts in all types of LED luminaires, their installation and their arrangement in spaces, in addition, our technical team supervises and provides monitoring of each lighting project from start to finish, and with our after-sales service you will have nothing to worry about. Entrust your lighting to experts and your interior design project will be a guaranteed success.

 

LED lighting trends

The new trends in LED lighting point above all to a type of lighting that is integrated into the space in such a way that it is not directly perceived. The aim is to subtly use this element to create atmosphere, but without showing it.

 

However, where LED lighting is visible, the design must be carefully planned in a way that is consistent with the rest of the space. Straight lines and sharp curves are now one of the most widespread trends.

 

Minimalism has become one of the most successful and in-demand options, and with LED lighting it is now easier than ever to highlight these forms.

 

In addition, the need to look for products with less impact on the environment has also made LED lighting a trend in its own right within architecture.

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